- Derived verbs
In Mundeze, all words have an invariable root, the radical, from which one can form the noun, the verb, the adjective and the adverb.
Example with “pel-” (to speak, to say)
The verb is always formed by adding the –i ending to the radical. The verbs therefore all end with -i*.
* The passive participle is considered as a “verbal adjective”, the gerund as a “verbal adverb”, and the present participle as a substantive. These participles derived from the verbal form therefore take the termination corresponding to their new nature.
Meaning of verbs that derive directly from non-verbal roots:
- If the root designates a property or a state, then the verbal form means in principle: “to have that property or that state”.
- If the root designates an instrument, a device, a tool… then the verbal form means in principle: “use this tool for its usual use”.
- If the root designates a substance, then the verbal form means in principle: “to provide that substance, to furnish that substance”.
- If the root designates a person, an animal or an animated thing, then the verbal form means in principle: “to be or act like such a person, such an animal, such a thing”.
A transitive verb is one that can be directly followed by a noun phrase (an object), with no intervening preposition. An intransitive verb does not have an object.
me gofi (I sleep) ➜ gofi is intransitive
moke breki (the hammer is broken) ➜ breki is intransitive
me nyami apole (I’m eating an apple) ➜ nyami is transitive
me uzi komputire (I’m using a computer) ➜ uzi is transitive
Transitivity is flexible in Mundeze. When an intransitive verb is followed by an object, it becomes transitive. It is therefore not mandatory to use the causative suffix -if- (see morphology of Mundeze).
Verb conjugation is done optionally with adverbs:
There are also 3 adverbs to precise aspect. They are placed just before the verb:
- jo: for an accomplished action = perfect aspect
- so: for an ongoing action = progressive aspect
- vo: for a planned action = prospective aspect
|Tense||Conjugation of the verb “nyami” (to eat)
|Past normal||(pretempo) me nyami||(I ate)|
|Past continuous||(pretempo) me so nyami||(I was eating)|
|Past perfect||(pretempo) me jo nyami||(I had eaten)|
|Past prospective||(pretempo) me vo nyami||(I was going to eat)|
|Present normal||(nutempo) me nyami||(I eat)|
|Present continuous||(nutempo) me so nyami||(I am eating)|
|Present perfect||(nutempo) me jo nyami||(I have eaten)|
|Present prospective||(nutempo) me vo nyami||(I am going to eat)|
|Future normal||(postempo) me nyami||(I will eat)|
|Future continuous||(postempo) me so nyami||(I will be eating)|
|Future perfect||(postempo) me jo nyami||(I will have eaten)|
|Future prospective||(postempo) me vo nyami||(I will be going to eat) *|
Note: The tenses are not strictly the same as in English, so this table has only an educational value. The absence of aspect adverbs, for example, does not mean that the action is or is not accomplished. In addition, specifying the tense is optional as long as it is specified by context.
The jussive is a mode used to express an injunction, an order. It can be the equivalent of imperative. The jussive is rendered by an intonation on the -i ending of the verb, which is written by an acute accent (ex: pelí = speak!).*
*You can replace the acute accent with an apostrophe after the i in case the keyboard does not allow it: peli’
It is also possible to express the idea of injunction by using the adverb mando before the verb. Example: tu mando nyami! = Eat!
There are 3 ways to make the conditional as we know it in English:
This conditional is normally introduced by the sis conjunction (if). It is rendered by placing the word sa (so, therefore, thus, then) before the verb, but the context often allows us to do without it.
sis me preo nyami tie, me sa pati = If I ate that, I’d be sick.
sis me multavi, me sa pravesi eve = If I were rich, I’d buy myself a house
sis tu posdio tiiti, me (sa) felitci = If you come tomorrow, I’ll be happy
It is rendered by placing sis before the verb.
lo sis muti si rolane = She should have been an actress
noy simatí me sis si kurane ni tu patane = Let’s say I’m the doctor and you’re the patient
lo sis leli nas avesi loa ofe = He would have lied to get his job
It does not exist and is simply expressed in indicative mood.
me speri ola te mado sami = I wish all men were materially equal.
(ples) nalcí na me sale = (Please) Pass me the salt = Could you pass me the salt?
me felitci sis tu tiiti = I be happy if you come = I’d like you to come
For the passive participle (verbal adjective), we add to the verb the ending -a of the adjective.
peli (to speak) + a ➜ pelia (spoken): ingleze si pelia en multa ike (English is spoken in many countries)
prodavi (to sell) + a ➜ prodavia (sold): masuno prodavia fareye (The best-selling product)
kuki (cook) + a ➜ kukia (cooked): saneye si upersato kukia (The meat is overcooked)
Gerund has the same meaning as the adverb, except that it refers to the subject. It is formed by adding to the verb the ending -o of the adverb. In English, the meaning is equivalent to the present participle preceded by “while”. For example: (while) talking.
peli (to speak, talk) + o ➜ pelio (while talking, by speaking): ane leri peli pelio (One learn to speak by speaking)
gofi (to sleep) + e ➜ gofio (while sleeping): lo gofio peli (She speaks while sleeping / in her sleep)
riiti (to go back) + e ➜ riitio (while going back): me jo wi lo riitio na dome (I saw him on my way home)
To form the agent, we add to the verb the ending -e of the substantive.
peli (to speak, talk) + e ➜ pelie (the one who speaks, the speaker): pelie si mea bape (The one who speaks is my father)
yugi (to play) + e ➜ yugie (the one who plays, the player): welí resta yugie (Look at the right player)
morisi (to die) + e ➜ morisie (the one who dies, the dying): va morisie salami tu (Those who are about to die salute you)