In mundeze, tool-words (conjunctions, adpositions, etc.) most often correspond to a word without a grammatical ending. Therefore, they often end with a consonant. Consequently, it can be difficult to pronounce a sequence of words: rest me (on my right); lif voy (on my left); upersat detaye (too many details); med vage (by train); dank tu (thanks to you); sop pede (on the foot)…
may = but, whereas, while
- lo dealti may forti = She’s small, but strong.
- tidey jo iti en obare, may kalose jo esi = The children went into the forest but it got dark.
u = or, either…or
ni = and
- amelia ni oliver guo koami = Emma and William love each other very much.
- lo si amibla ni mentcesiva = He is friendly and understanding.
- lo nio ne arabiezi, nio ne parsezi = He speaks neither Arabic nor Persian.
- nio ne were, nio ne dewere = Neither war nor peace.
sa = so, then, thus, so that, therefore
as = because, for
- me warmo icesi as fridi = I dress warm because it’s cold.
- me meni lo pati as me nudio ne wi lo = I think she’s sick because I haven’t seen her today.
- danke as tua ayde = Thanks for your help.
en = at, in (in the place of)
dom = at (at somebody’s house)
in = in, within, inside
mes = between, among
preen = in front of, before
posen = behind
ru = around, about
- vivunde ruiti ru swele = The Earth revolves around the Sun
- me eni ru tua dome = I am in the vicinity of your home
ner = near
laten = beside, alongside, next to
tel = far from
per = through, by
nal = across, over, to the other side of
uper = beyond, past
os = when, at the time when, as
- me itesi os tu riiti = I’ll leave when you come back
- me itesi os bia hore = I’ll leave at two o’clock
- me itesi os bi hore = I’ll leave in two hours
hata = until, till, up to, unto, for, in (completion time)
samos = while, whereas, as
duros = during, as long as
preos = before, in less than, within
- me itesi preos bia hore = I’ll leave before two o’clock
- me itesi preos bi hore = I’ll leave in less than two hours
preoso = ago, before, previously
posos = after
- me itesi posos bia hore = I’ll leave after two o’clock
- me itesi posos bi hore = I’ll leave in over two hours
pososo = later, after
ru = around, about
- me itesi ru bia hore = I’ll leave around two o’clock / I left around two o’clock
- me itesi ru bi hore = I left about two hours ago / I will leave in about two hours
ki = if, whether
- me tsivoli ki lo postempo tiiti = I wonder if she’ll come
- me ne tsi ki veri = I don’t know if that’s true
sis = if, in case, provided that, in the event, in so far as…
sen sis = unless, except
a = of
o = like, as, such as
sam = like, following the example of
so = as
sim = as if, as though
per = by, from (agent / passive)
lu = according to, along, by, following, in accordance with
dan = than, with regard to, compared with
om = in (quantity), per (distribution)
- ley jo tiiti om ter = They cam in threes / Three of them came
- tisi un buke om lerane = Here is one book per student
ko = between (reciprocity, relation)
- si gua konfele ko ley = There is a strong complicity between them
- kopele ko dostey = A conversation between friends
kon = with (comitatifve)
hata = including, moreover, in addition…
sen = without, except, other than, apart from, besides…
da = from, of, made up of
- sopice da katune = A pullover made of cotton
- vine da franse guboni = The wine from France is excellent
tem = about, concerning, over, regarding, as to, as for…
- noy no peli tem tu! = We were just talking about you!
- me zorgi tem tua sune = I’m worried about your health.
por = for, towards, to, as regards, in favour of…
ri = against (opposition), opposed to
vis = instead of
das = because, given that, since
nas = to, in order to, so as